Sunday, October 6, 2013

Essene or sprouted bread

Essene bread is a dense, filling, unleavened bread made from whole sprouted grains, usually wheat, but may also include barley, rye, spelt, millet and/or buckwheat. It is rich in beneficial nutrients.

Essene bread contains no yeast, no dairy, no eggs, no oil or fat, no sweetener. It is only sprouted grain, with added salt if you wish.

Essene bread has become popular in recent years and is sold in natural and health food stores. It sometimes includes nuts, seeds, raisins, dates and herbs, which can make the bread more like a moist malt loaf. It has a naturally sweet taste.

The Essenes were a Jewish sect with about 4000 members, which flourished around the time of Christ. They lived an ascetic lifestyle in the countryside and practised vegetarianism.

Wherever they lived, the common people always called them “The Healers”. The word ‘Essene’ comes from the Aramaic word ‘Assaya’, which means ‘Healer’.

In Egypt, the Essenes were called ‘Therapeutae’, which means ‘Healer’ and is the origin of the word ‘Therapist’.

Philo of Alexandria, in a book written two thousand years ago, wrote that the Essenes were not only the best healers of the body, but also of the mind and soul.

Not only did they heal others, they also lived a healing lifestyle that caused them to live to very advanced ages.

The Jewish historian Josephus, in a book written two thousand years ago, declares that the Essenes lived to an average age of over 100 years, many reaching the age of 120. And that was at a time when the average age of death of non-Essenes was 45.

The staple food of the Essenes was bread made from sprouted whole grains or berry roots, which were finely ground, mixed with water, and cooked at low temperatures in order to preserve the vitamins, minerals and enzymes.

Due to the way it is made, Essene bread is sometimes referred to as a "living loaf" because the grains are partially raw and the enzymes are left intact.

These plant enzymes support digestion and the process of sprouting reduces the content of phytic acid, a substance present in grains that inhibits absorption of minerals.

Rich in vitamins and minerals

Commercial bread manufacturing uses the endosperm of the wheat kernel, which contains mainly carbohydrate and very little vitamin or mineral content. The commercial milling of grain into white flour removes the bran and the germ, which results in the loss of natural fibre and numerous vitamins and minerals. To compensate, bread manufacturers often add back thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, calcium and iron.

Essene bread, on the other hand, contains whole grains and thus retains all the nutrients.

When grains, seeds and nuts are germinated, their nutrients become easier for the body to assimilate.

Because Essene bread is not baked at high temperatures, less nutrients are destroyed in the cooking process.

High in antioxidants

Sprouted grains, seeds and nuts are high in antioxidants. Antioxidants protect the body from the by-products of oxidation in the body, referred to as free-radicals, which are thought to be responsible for aging, tissue damage and disease.

High in fibre

In addition to being very digestible, sprouted grains are an excellent source of fibre and plant protein.

Fibre has many beneficial effects on health, for example, it promotes bowel movements and assists with the healthy regulation of blood sugar, cholesterol and oestrogen levels in the blood.


How to make bread from sprouted grains


1-2 cups dry grain – e.g., wheat, spelt barley, rye, buckwheat (this will yield 4-6 cups sprouted grain). Barley gives a moister consistency and more of a caramel or malty flavour when mixed in with wheat.


There are 5 basic steps:

  1. Soak the grain.
  2. Sprout the grain.
  3. Grind the grain.
  4. Bake the grain.
  5. Condition the loaf.

To sprout grains, wash them, soak them in water for 24 hours, then transfer them to a jar with a piece of cloth or nylon window screen secured over its rim.

Rinse with water two to four times a day, depending on the climate and the type of seed, to provide them with moisture and prevent them from souring.

Depending on the type of grain, they will sprout in 3-5 days.

The grains should be soft, and the sprouts just starting. Pick through them to remove any unsprouted or discoloured grains.

Mince the sprouts. You can use a food processor, a blender, or a big pestle and mortar. A slow juicer with the mincing cone attached also works.

Shape the dough into a greased bread pan, or lay it out on some baking paper.

Leave it in a warm spot (20-25 centigrade) for 12-24 hours. It can rise up to double in size. It rises more if it is finely minced. Adding a sourdough starter can help too.


The best, most alive bread is made if you slow-cook the loaf for a total of 24-36 hours. You can put it in the sun, or use a VERY low oven if your oven can turn down that low. The maximum temperature allowed is 40 centigrade/104 Fahrenheit. If you keep it below that temperature, the high level of enzymes and other nutrients in the sprouted grains are kept intact. This makes a very digestible and healthy loaf.


Alternatively, you can bake the loaf in an oven at 110-115 centigrade (225-250 Fahrenheit) for two hours. This makes a sweet, almost caramelised, dense loaf. It is similar to many store-sold Essene breads.


After cooking, wrap the cooled loaf in parchment and put into the refrigerator for at least 1 or 2 days.

The bread, after it cools, will be very hard on the outside and very wet on the inside. Conditioning it in the fridge will allow the exterior to soften and the interior to firm up.


Rather than a loaf, form into flattened balls

To improve the flavour and texture of the traditional bread above:
1 tablespoon olive oil
1/4 teaspoon sea salt

To make a more interesting or a sweeter bread:
1/4 cup of sesame seeds or caraway seeds OR
1/2 cup of currants, raisins or dates

To make a bread that rises more:
1/2 cup of spelt flour
1 tablespoon of kefir whey
1 tablespoon of sourdough starter


Quod Omnis Probus liber sit “Every Good Man is Free,” 75–91, and the Apologia pro Iudaeis (in Eusebius” Praeparatio Evangelica 8.11.1–18), a work usually considered part of the Hypothetica.

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Sunday, August 25, 2013

Barley, butternut squash, mushroom and ginger risotto

Barley, mushroom, butternut squash and ginger risotto

You'll remember me when the west wind moves
Upon the fields of barley
You'll forget the sun in his jealous sky
As we walk in fields of gold

(Sting - Ten Summoner's Tales - 1993)

Fields of Gold is one of my favourite songs and reminds me of late summer just before harvest.

At one time, barley was a very important part of people's diet but nowadays most of the crop is used for animal feed and to make beer and whisky.

This is a pity because barley has some very special properties and I hope to convince you to try it if you have never done so.

Barley is a high protein, high fibre whole grain with numerous health benefits.

It contains gluten, though not as much as wheat, so is unsuitable for those on a gluten-free diet.

Current scientific evidence indicates that barley, like other whole grains, plays an important role in lowering the risk of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancer; helps weight loss and improves gastrointestinal health - please click here to Tweet.

Please click on this link to read my article on barley and its health benefits.

When cooked, barley has a pleasant chewy texture and nutty flavour.

Traditionally, it is used in soups and stews but you can use it like any other grain such as rice. It is, for example, a good alternative to arborio rice for use in risottos and can be used in salads, stir-fries or to make porridge.

Here is a delicious and satisfying recipe for a barley risotto, with butternut squash, mushrooms and ginger.


Serves 3-4

1. How to make a nutritious stock

Please click here for more information on seaweeds and their health benefits.

2. How to make the risotto

*Please click here for information on the difference between pot barley and pearl barley.

Nutritional information

The key nutrients present in this barley risotto are shown below, both per portion (very generous at 444g) and per 100g, and as a percentage of the guideline daily nutrient intake, referred to as the Reference Nutrient Intake, or RNI.

You can see that even in relatively large quantity this risotto is low in calories and fat, whilst being high in fibre, vitamins and minerals.

Nutrients per portion as a percentage of the guideline daily intake (RNI)

Nutrients per portion and per 100g as percentage of guideline daily intake (Reference Nutrient Intake or RNI)

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Monday, August 19, 2013

Barley and its health benefits

Barley - Hordeum vulgare

Barley is a high protein, high fibre whole grain with numerous health benefits. It contains gluten, though not as much as wheat, so is unsuitable for those on a gluten-free diet.

When cooked, barley has a pleasant chewy texture and nutty flavour.

Traditionally, it is used in soups and stews but you can use it like any other grain such as rice. It is, for example, a good alternative to arborio rice for use in risottos and can be used in salads, stir-fries or to make porridge.

Read on to find out more about barley, its health benefits and how to cook it.

Barley, wheat and rye are all related members of the same botanical family (Triticeae) and thus share many genetic and biochemical characteristics.

In contrast to wheat, cultivated barley comprises only one species, Hordeum vulgare.

Barley grain ranks fourth in cereal production, with a world output of 130 million tonnes in 2012 (FAOSTAT).

The crop requires a temperate climate; the principal growing areas are Europe and the Russian Federation but it is also a valuable and resilient crop in arid and semi-arid areas of Asia, the Middle East and North Africa.

Field of barley
Source: Wikimedia Commons

Barley is one of the most ancient cultivated grains in the world.

It originated in Ethiopia and Southeast Asia, where it has been cultivated since 8000 BCE. More varieties of barley are found today in Ethiopia than in any other area of comparable size.

The ancient Greeks relied on barley to make bread and athletes attributed their physical strength to their barley containing diets.

Roman Gladiators were called Hordearii, or Barley Men. It's said they believed barley gave them greater strength and stamina than other foods.

In Ancient China, barley was considered a symbol of male virility due to the numerous seeds in a single head of barley.

Ancient Chinese medical practitioners considered that barley strengthens the spleen-pancreas, regulates the stomach, and fortifies the intestines; builds the blood and yin fluids and moistens dryness; promotes diuresis; benefits the gall bladder and nerves; and is very easily digested.

They used it to feed convalescents and invalids; treat diarrhoea; soothe inflamed membranes; alleviate painful and difficult urination; quell fever; and to reduce tumours, swellings and watery accumulations such as oedema.

More than 80 per cent of the barley crop is used for animal feed and as malt in alcoholic beverages, such as beer and whisky.

Beer is an ancient beverage. Clay tablets describing the beer brewing process and dating back more than 5,000 years have been found in Mesopotamia.

Impression of a Sumerian cylinder seal from the Early Dynastic IIIa period (ca. 2600 BC; see Woolley 1934, pl. 200, no. 102 [BM 121545]). Persons drinking beer are depicted in the upper row. The habit of drinking beer together from a large vessel using long stalks went out of fashion after the decline of Sumerian culture in the 2nd millennium BC.

According to these tablets, Sumerians used to prepare “beer bread” out of germinated barley seeds. By crumbling this bread into water, they obtained a liquid called “sikaru”, which was finally boiled and mixed with a few herbs, resulting in a drink free of harmful bacteria.

Sprouted barley is high in maltose and is also used to make malt syrup.

Types of barley grain products

You may be confused about all the different types of barley products available, so here is a short guide:

1.  Covered barley

Covered barley, is barley in its original form in the field. It usually has a tough, inedible outer hull around the barley kernel. This covering must be removed before the barley can be eaten.

Barley grain in the field -

2.  Hulless or naked barley

Hulless or naked barley is a less common variety that has a covering, or hull, that is so loose that it usually falls off during harvesting. This cuts down on processing and ensures that all of the bran and germ are retained.

Hulless or naked barley -

3.  Hulled, de-hulled or pot barley

Hulled barley, sometimes referred to as de-hulled or pot barley, is covered barley that has been minimally processed to remove only the tough inedible outer hull. It is difficult to remove the hull carefully so that some of the bran is not lost – but that's what must be done for covered barley to be considered whole grain.

De-hulled, hulled or pot barley -

4.  Barley grits

Barley grits. When barley kernels are cut into several pieces, they become grits. Read the label carefully: grits from hulled or hulless barley are whole grain, but grits created by cutting up pearl barley are not considered whole grain.

Barley grits -

5.  Barley flakes

Barley flakes look similar to oat flakes and are produced the same way - by steaming kernels, rolling them, and drying them. As with barley grits, flakes can be made from whole grain barley or from pearl barley, with only the former considered to be whole grains. Barley flakes cook faster, because they've been lightly steamed and because of their greater surface area.

Barley flakes -

6.  Barley flour

Barley flour is used in baked goods and as a thickener for soups, stews and gravies. While it contains gluten, the protein that helps baked goods rise, the type of gluten in barley flour does not promote adequate rising on its own, so barley flour is usually used with wheat flour. Look for whole grain barley flour, ground from hulled or hulless barley, not from pearl barley.

Barley flour -

7.  Pearl barley

Pearl barley is not a whole grain. It has been polished, or "pearled" to remove some or all of the outer bran layer along with the hull. If it's lightly pearled, pearl barley will be tan coloured; if it's heavily pearled, barley will be almost white. Most of the barley found in the typical supermarket is pearl barley. Although it is technically a refined grain, it's much healthier than other refined grains because (a) some of the bran may still be present and (b) the fibre in barley is distributed throughout the kernel, and not just in the outer bran layer. Pearl barley cooks more quickly than whole grain barley.

Pearl barley -

8.  Quick pearl barley

Quick pearl barley is a type of barley flake that cooks in about 10 minutes, because it has been partially cooked and dried during the flake-rolling process. Although barley flakes can be whole grain and technically it would feasible to create quick whole grain barley (similar to quick oats, which are whole grain), the quick barley commercially available today is made from pearl barley and so is not whole grain.

Quick pearl barley flakes - www.

Nutrition highlights


Barley is highest in fibre of all the whole grains, with common varieties averaging about 17 per cent fibre, and some having up to 30 per cent fibre.  For comparison, brown rice contains 3.5 per cent fibre, corn about 7 per cent, oats 10 per cent and wheat about 12 per cent.

While the fibre in most grains is concentrated largely in the outer bran layer, barley's fibre is found throughout the whole grain, which may account for its extraordinarily high levels.

Like oats, the fibre in barley is rich in beta-glucans, which have been shown to lower cholesterol by various mechanisms.


Starch is the major component in barley kernels amounting 60 - 70 per cent of the dry matter. Starch itself is composed of two types of glucose polymers namely the highly branched amylopectin and the linear amylose.


Barley has more protein than corn, brown rice, millet, sorghum or rye, with levels ranging from 7 to 25 per cent depending on the variety and growing conditions.

When compared with the World Health Organisation (WHO) requirements for essential amino acids for humans, wheat, barley and rye contain all of them but are seen to be deficient in lysine, with threonine being the second limiting amino acid.

The content of amino acids in a typical barley variety in relation to WHO recommendations is shown below.

Some varieties, such as Prowashonupana (Conagra) have been bred for high lysine content (>4 g/100g protein).

Other plant foods contain substantial quantities of lysine, however, so provided you eat a varied diet, this is nothing to worry about.

A list of plants high in lysine is shown below:

Vitamins and minerals

Barley is an excellent source of the minerals selenium and manganese and a good source of copper, magnesium and phosphorus; it contains four times more magnesium than calcium.

Selenium is a trace mineral. Although we only need small amounts, it is essential for helping to prevent cellular damage from free radicals, to regulate thryoid function, and for a healthy immune system.

Manganese helps us handle oxidative stress. It activates many important enzymes in the body that are crucial to metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, and cholesterol. Manganese is also essential to the formation of healthy cartilage and bone.

Magnesium is an essential mineral required for hundreds of biochemical reactions, including transmission of nerve impulses, converting food into energy, body temperature regulation and maintaining a strong immune system. Magnesium also helps us absorb calcium, for healthy bones and teeth.

Another essential mineral, phosphorus is present in every cell in your body, making up 1 per cent of your body weight. Its main function is the formation of bones and teeth, but it is also key to the synthesis of protein for cell repair, growth, and maintenance; for heartbeat regularity; and nerve conduction.

Unlike corn, barley is a good source of niacin (vitamin B3) and thiamine (vitamin B1).

B vitamins help with metabolism, the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. While each has its own functions, in general they also help maintain healthy skin, hair and muscles; form red blood cells; and promote healthy immune and nervous system function. Some research shows that B vitamins also prevent mood swings.


Barley is rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant activity. These phytochemicals are thought to be responsible for many of barley's health benefits.

The barley variety Prowashonupana has an antioxidant capacity of 4600 umol per g. This compares with values of 6220 umol per g for cultivated blueberries; 3557 umol per g for strawberries, 3037 umol per g for raisins; and 2640 umol per g for spinach.

Barley grains contain a wide range of phenolic acids, anthocyanins, carotenoids and tocopherols which have powerful antioxidant activity.

Lutein and zeaxanthin are the two main carotenoids identified in barley.

Vitamin E or tocopherols are also present in substantial concentrations.

Health benefits

Type 2 diabetes, insulin and glucose response

Diets high in whole grains are associated with a 20-30 per cent reduction in risk of developing type-2 diabetes, which is attributed to a variety of wholegrain components, notably dietary fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. Most phytochemicals function as antioxidants in vitro and have the potential to mitigate oxidative stress and inflammation which are implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.

There is evidence that barley is more effective than oats at helping blood sugar regulation.

Scientists at Columbia University and Stanford collaborated to reflect on the association between rapidly rising rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in India, and the adoption of refined carbohydrates – especially white rice and white flour – in that country. They advocated re-introduction of whole grains commonly consumed before 1950, including amaranth, barley, brown rice, millet, and sorghum, as a way to stem chronic disease in culturally-sensitive ways.

Fibre is one of the factors that is known to slow the uptake of glucose into the blood stream after eating. Researchers at Oxford Brookes University in the UK set out to explore whether whole grain barley with different fibre levels (10% fibre vs 16% fibre) or in different serving sizes (25g and 50g of available carbohydrate) would affect glycaemic response. They found no difference in any of the variables, but all of the barley porridge options elicited a significantly low glycaemic response.

Dutch researchers used a crossover study with 10 healthy men to compare the effects of cooked barley kernels and refined wheat bread on blood sugar control. The men ate one or the other of these grains at dinner, then were given a high glycaemic index breakfast (50g of glucose) the next morning for breakfast. When they had eaten the barley dinner, the men had 30 per cent better insulin sensitivity the next morning after breakfast.

White rice, the staple food in Japan, is a high glycaemic index food. Researchers at the University of Tokushima found that glucose levels were lower after meals when subjects switched from white rice to barley.

Scientists at the Functional Food Centre at Oxford Brookes University in England fed 8 healthy human subjects chapatis (unleavened Indian flatbreads) made with either 0g, 2g, 4g, 6g or 8g of barley beta-glucan fiber. They found that all amounts of barley beta-glucan lowered the glycemic index of the breads, with 4g or more making a significant difference.

In a crossover study involving 17 obese women at increased risk for insulin resistance, USDA scientists studied the effects of 5 different breakfast cereal test meals on subjects’ insulin response. They found that consumption of 10g of barley beta-glucan significantly reduced insulin response.

Swedish researchers at Lund University have determined that certain whole grain products can help control blood sugar for up to ten hours. A team led by Anne Nilsson fed twelve healthy subjects test meals including different whole and refined grains, and found that barley and rye kernels at one meal had a long-lasting effect on controlling blood sugar extending to most of the day after the whole grain breakfast, or overnight with whole grains at dinner.

USDA researchers fed barley flakes, barley flour, rolled oats, oat flour, and glucose to 10 overweight middle-aged women, then studied their bodies’ responses. They found that peak glucose and insulin levels after barley were significantly lower than those after glucose or oats. Particle size did not appear to be a factor, as both flour and flakes had similar effects.

Blood pressure

For five weeks, adults with mildly high cholesterol were fed diets supplemented with one of three whole grain choices: whole wheat/brown rice, barley, or whole wheat/brown rice/barley. All three whole grain combinations reduced blood pressure, leading USDA researchers to conclude that "in a healthful diet, increasing whole grain foods, whether high in soluble or insoluble fibre, can reduce blood pressure and may help to control weight."

Cholesterol and serum lipids

University of Connecticut researchers reviewed 8 studies evaluating the lipid-reducing effects of barley. They found that eating barley significantly lowered total cholesterol, LDL (“bad”) cholesterol, and triglycerides, but did not appear significantly to alter HDL (“good”) cholesterol.

A randomized double-blind study in Japan followed 44 men with high cholesterol for twelve weeks, as the men ate either a standard white-rice diet or one with a mixture of rice and high-beta-glucan pearl barley. Barley intake significantly reduced serum cholesterol and visceral fat, both accepted markers of cardiovascular risk.

25 adults with mildly high cholesterol were fed whole grain foods containing 0g, 3g or 6g of barley beta-glucan per day for five weeks, with blood samples taken twice weekly. Total cholesterol and LDL (“bad”) cholesterol significantly decreased with the addition of barley to the diet.

University of California researchers fed two test meals to 11 healthy men, both containing beta-glucan. One meal was a high-fibre (15.7g) barley pasta and the other was  lower-fibre (5.0g) wheat pasta. The barley pasta blunted insulin response, and four hours after the meal, barley-eaters had significantly lower cholesterol concentration than wheat-eaters.

Roman gladiators were known as hordearii or barley men - their diet was based on barley and beans, which gave them strength and stamina to fight in public arenas

Cardiovascular disease

Penny Kris-Etherton and Kristin Harris at Penn State's Department of Nutrition Sciences, reviewed research on whole grains and coronary heart disease risk in an effort to explain mixed results from one study to another. They concluded that, "due to the varying nutrition compositions of different whole grains, each could potentially affect coronary heart disease risk via different mechanisms."

Whole grains high in soluble fibre tend to decrease LDL cholesterol and improve insulin response, for example, while those high in insoluble fibre may have a prebiotic effect, while lowering glucose and blood pressure.

While intervention studies have not proven the observed epidemiological link between whole grains and weight loss, visceral fat loss has been shown. Differences in processing of whole grains may also affect their heart-healthy potential.

Eating an average of 2.5 servings of whole grain foods each day can lower your risk of cardiovascular disease by almost one-quarter. That's the finding of a seven-study meta-analysis of 285,000 men and women led by Philip Mellen of Wake Forest University. In light of this evidence, Mellen said, policy-makers, scientists and clinicians should "redouble efforts" to get people to eat more whole grains.

Another study by Philip Mellen at Wake Forest University and colleagues measured atherosclerosis of the common carotid artery, and its progression over five years. Mellen's team found that, among the 1178 men and women in the study, those who ate more whole grains had less unhealthy artherosclerotic thickening of the common carotid artery.

After following 21,376 male physicians for almost 20 years, Luc Djoussé and J. Michael Gaziano at Harvard found that those eating two to six servings of whole grain cereal a week reduced their risk of heart failure 22%, while those eating whole grains daily reduced risk by 28%. For this study, cereals with at least 25% whole grain or bran by weight were classified as whole grain.

Researchers led by Dr. Mark Pereira collected data on 91,058 men and 245,186 women who participated in 10 studies in the US and Europe. After 6-10 years of followup, the research showed that, for each 10 grams of fibre consumed per day, there was a 14% reduction in heart disease risk and a 25% reduction in risk of dying from heart disease. In short, the cereal fibre in whole grains appears to make heart disease much less likely—and less serious if it does occur.


Researchers at Imperial College London conducted a meta-analysis of 25 studies involving almost two million people (and 14,500 cases of colorectal cancer) to assess the links between colorectal cancer and both whole grains and total dietary fibre. They concluded that there is a credible "dose-response" relationship between whole grain consumption and reduced cancer risk; they estimate that eating three or more servings of whole grains per day lowers colorectal cancer risk nearly 20 per cent. Dietary fibre also reduces this risk, but cereal/grain fibre shows stronger benefits than other types of fibre.

Researchers in Brazil conducted a meta-analysis of 11 cohort studies including 1,719,590 participants, who were followed from 6 to 16 years. Their overall conclusion was that "consumption of whole grains was inversely associated with the risk of developing colorectal cancer."

Reduced colonic transit time has been implicated in reducing the incidence of colon cancer, as evidenced by populations consuming diets rich in fibre.

The high fibre content of barley makes it one of the most effective grains for reducing colon transit time. Its high antioxidant content also reduces oxidative stress in the gut, reducing the risk of damage to the gastro-intestinal tract which can lead to cancer.

Increasing attention is being paid to overall dietary patterns and their relationship to health, rather than single nutrients or foods. In one such study of more than 50,000 African-American women, researchers found that eating a "prudent diet" (high in fruits, vegetables, fish and whole grains) rather than a "Western diet" (more refined grains, processed meats, sweets) cut the risk of breast cancer. The findings were especially strong for thinner, younger women and for certain types of breast cancer.

Pancreatic cancer is the most fatal cancer in the U.S., but eating two servings or more of whole grains daily may cut the risk of this swift and deadly killer by up to 40 per cent. That was the finding of researchers at UC San Francisco led by June Chan, who compared diets of 532 pancreatic cancer patients with 1,701 people not suffering from the disease.

Barley is rich in beta-glucans which are known to boost the immune system and have anti-cancer properties.

Extracts of barley were shown to prevent proliferation of Caco-2 colon cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner (p<0 .05="" p="">
Protocatechualdehyde (PCA) is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in barley, green cavendish bananas, and grapevine leaves.

Although a few studies reported growth-inhibitory activity of PCA in breast and leukaemia cancer cells, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood.

Researchers at the University of Maryland in the USA performed an in vitro study and found that this barley phytochemical suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner.

Eye health

Barley contains appreciable quantities of the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin.

Lutein and zeaxanthin are responsible for the coloration of the macula lutea (‘yellow spot’) of the retina, the area of maximal visual acuity.

Dietary lutein and zeaxanthin are known protect against age-related macular degeneration and cataract.

It is therefore possible that consumption of barley can protect the health of the eyes, though further studies are required to provide direct evidence for this.

Furthermore, lutein and zeaxanthin possibly act together with other bioactive compounds against cancer, cardiovascular risk and other diseases.

Depression and mood disturbances

Talbinah or talbina is a barley syrup cooked with milk and sweetened by honey. In his famous Hadith on Talbinah, the Prophet Mohammad (SAW) recommended it for soothing hearts and relieving sadness.

Researchers in Malaysia conducted a 3-week crossover designed, randomized clinical trial to determine the effect of Talbinah on mood and depression among institutionalized elderly people in Seremban. They found a statistically significant decrease in depression, stress, and mood disturbances scores among the group given talbinah (P greater than 0.05) compared with the controls.


Current scientific evidence indicates that whole grains, including barley, play an important role in lowering the risk of chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cancer, and also contribute to body weight management and gastrointestinal health.

Rather than becoming fixated on individual foods and nutrients, it is important to understand the big picture - that a diet high in whole grains, vegetables, beans, pulses, nuts, seeds and fruit is optimum for human health in the long term.

How to cook barley

Cereals need to be thoroughly cooked and chewed in order to be properly digested.  Although fashionable, the habit of lightly cooking grains to keep them dry and separate can be a recipe for intestinal discomfort and poor nutrient absorption.

For best results, cook grains as follows:

  • Wash thoroughly, preferably changing the water 2-3 times until the remaining water is clear
  • Remove all husks and any debris arising in the cooking water
  • Measure the grain and the appropriate amount of water accurately. 
For barley, the ratio is one cup barley grain to three cups water. It is best to soak barley for a few hours before cooking.
  • Place the lid on the pan firmly. The lid should have no holes in it.
  • Bring to a boil, then turn down heat as low as possible and simmer on a very low flame using a flame deflector for the required time.  Check cooking time carefully. 
For minimally processed barley, like pot barley, it will need to be boiled for 50-60 minutes.
Pearl barley may take less time.
  • When ready, remove from the cooker and leave to stand uncovered for about 5 minutes before transferring to a serving dish.

Check out my next post for a recipe for a satisfying and delicious barley, mushroom, butternut squash and ginger risotto.

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Saturday, August 10, 2013

Buckwheat, sweet potato, courgette and cashew croquettes with roasted beetroot and onion sauce

Here is a gluten-free plant-based recipe for some savoury croquettes. These are versatile and easy to make. They can be served as a grain dish alongside other dishes as part of a main meal or eaten on their own with a green salad for a light lunch.

You may be thinking "what on earth is buckwheat?"

Despite its name, buckwheat is not botanically related to wheat at all.

This is excellent news if you are on a gluten-free diet.

Buckwheat is a broad-leaf plant, not a grass like wheat.

The term 'buckwheat' refers to plants in two genera of the family Polygonaceae: the Eurasian genus Fagopyrum, and the North American genus Eriogonum. Rhubarb is also a member of this plant family.

The crop plant, common buckwheat, is Fagopyrum esculentum.

Tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum Gaertn.) or "bitter buckwheat" is also used as a crop, but is much less common.

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum)

Common buckwheat was domesticated and first cultivated in southeast Asia, possibly around 6000 BC, and from there spread to Europe and to Central Asia and Tibet.  It was cultivated in Europe in the Balkans around 4000 BC.

In Central and Eastern Europe, kasha - cooked buckwheat - is eaten as porridge, used in pilav or for stuffing traditional Jewish snacks called knish.

Buckwheat grain

Buckwheat is either eaten whole or ground into flour to be used in breads, pancakes or thin noodles (soba).

It can be purchased raw to be lightly dry-roasted at home before cooking and generally combines well with vegetables.

In recent years, buckwheat has been used as a substitute for other grain in gluten free beer.

Nutrients and health benefits of buckwheat

Buckwheat contains about 75% carbohydrate, 18% protein and is rich in iron, zinc and selenium.

Its protein contains all of the essential amino acids except lysine, so its protein value is over 90%.

It also contains significant quantities of anti-oxidants.

One of these is called rutin, a phytochemical with interesting biological activities.

Conventionally, rutin is used as an antimicrobial, antifungal, and antiallergic agent. However, current research suggests potential benefits for the treatment of various chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia.

Rutin is said to strengthen capillary walls, reducing haemorrhaging in people with high blood pressure; reduce blood pressurelower blood lipidsprevent damage from alcohol-induced inflammation in the liver; and increase circulation to the hands and feet.


Makes about 10 croquettes



1 cup buckwheat grain (washed)
2 cups boiling water from kettle
1/2 medium onion (finely chopped)
1/2 small sweet potato (grated)
1/4 medium courgette (zucchini), grated
1 small handful cashews (finely chopped)
1/2 strip wakame sea vegetable (soaked for 10 minutes and finely chopped) 


4 small beetroot or 2 medium beetroot (washed and scrubbed)
2 medium carrots (peeled)
1 medium onion (unpeeled)
1/2 cup water
2 tsp white miso



  1. Pre-heat oven to 190 C, wrap beetroot, carrot and whole onion in foil and bake for 45 minutes or until vegetables are soft.
  2. While vegetables are cooking, prepare the croquettes as shown below.
  3. Allow beetroot, carrots and onion to cool, remove skins from cooked beetroot and onion. Cut cooked beetroot, carrot and onion into pieces, put all in a food processor and blend until smooth. Add water to achieve the desired consistency for a sauce. Add ume seasoning, apple juice concentrate and white miso to taste.


  1. Place buckwheat in a thick pan, add hot water, put the lid on and bring to the boil. When boiling, turn heat down low and simmer with the lid on for 20-30 minutes, until the buckwheat is soft and cooked. There should be no water left in the pan.
  2. While the buckwheat is cooking, saute the onion, grated sweet potato, grated courgette (zucchini) and spices until vegetables are soft and the onion translucent. Add chopped cashews and wakame.
  3. Mix vegetables with buckwheat, mould into round balls and flatten gently. If you use too many vegetables in proportion to buckwheat, the mixture will become too moist and the croquettes won't stick together. 
  4. Place on a greased baking tray and bake in a pre-heated oven at 180 C/gas mark 4 for 20 minutes or until croquettes are golden brown.
  5. Serve with beetroot and onion sauce and a salad garnish.


Like rice and other grains, buckwheat provides a neutral base to which almost any combination of seasonal vegetables, vegetarian proteins, herbs and spices can be added. 

You can also use a variation of this recipe to make buckwheat pilav. Use 1/2 cup buckwheat cooked in 1 cup water to the same quantity of vegetables listed above. Instead of forming into patties, just mix grain and vegetables together and serve with a garnish.

Buckwheat pilav

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Friday, August 9, 2013

How to use a ginger grater

One of the most useful gadgets in my kitchen is this small Japanese ceramic ginger grater or oroshigane.

I bought it online for less than £10 (US$15).

A Japanese grater is different from a typical western-style grater. It has small 'teeth' protruding upwards and instead of the grated material falling through holes in the grater, the grated material stays on top.

You can buy these ceramic graters with different sized and spaced 'teeth' which influences the size of the gratings. In general they produce a much finer grating than regular graters.

Traditionally, Japanese chefs used graters made from shark skin. This has many fine 'teeth' or placoid scales called dermal denticles, which give it a feel similar to sandpaper.

The Japanese-style ceramic grater is designed for grating ginger or wasabi (Japanese horseradish), but it works well for any vegetable with a similar texture, like garlic, European horseradish, or even carrots.

I use mine mainly for grating ginger in order to extract the juice.

I don't like using it to grate garlic as your fingers end up smelling and I am quite happy with my garlic press.

A ceramic grater is very easy to use. This is what you do:

1.  Cut off a small piece of fresh ginger root and rub it up and down on the ceramic teeth until it becomes a pulp

If I am doing this to extract the juice, I do not bother to remove the skin. If you want to add the pulp to your dish you will need to peel the ginger first.

2. Gently collect the pulp from the grater, hold it in your hand and squeeze it tightly over a bowl until you have removed as much of the juice as possible

You will be left with a bowl of juice and a small ball of dry pulp.

3.  Ideally, it is best to use the ginger juice immediately

Ginger contains volatile substances and you may lose some of the flavour if you store it for too long. Cover the bowl with a small plate until you are ready to use it.

4.  Ideas for using ginger juice

Wake-up drink in the morning.

Add 1 teaspoon fresh ginger juice and a slice of lemon to boiling water, allow to cool and drink first thing in the morning.

This helps to boost your immune system and stimulate your digestion ready for the rest of the day.

Ginger has anti-microbial properties so I always drink this if I feel a common cold might be developing.


I love adding ginger juice to stir-fried vegetables to give them an energising, uplifting flavour.

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